RAI Publications

In the era marked by global interconnectedness and greater focus on transparency and accountability, the ratification and implementation of the International Treaty on Exchange of Data for the Verification of Asset Declarations represents a key step forward. This Treaty underscores the commitment of the international community to combat corruption, promote financial integrity and ensure accountability of public officials by facilitating the exchange of data related to asset declarations. To effectively integrate the provisions of the Treaty into the legal framework in each beneficiary country, a precise approach to identification and implementation of the best legal and technical solutions is of vital importance.

This report has two objectives – The first objective is to produce an assessment of the legal framework and technical capacities for collection, verification and exchange of asset declaration data with other jurisdictions. The assessment covers the following jurisdictions: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia.

The second objective of the assignment is to develop the long-term implementation plan – the Blueprint.

This document was developed under auspices of the Regional Programme Southeast Europe – Together against Corruption (SEE-TAC), implemented in partnership with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) with the financial support of the Austrian Development Cooperation (ADC).

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Authors: Irena Brzanova, Legal Expert and Esmin Berhamovic, IT Expert
Year of Publishing: 2024

The methodology aims to provide readers with a better understanding of the monitoring and evaluation process of corruption risk assessment by improving knowledge of the key instruments for CRA monitoring and evaluation, such as the list of indicators. The methodology is intended to be used by practitioners in the public sector in the targeted jurisdictions: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia.

The document covers CRA planning, monitoring, evaluation, and management processes. It is intended to be used in public sector institutions to develop bespoke CRA M&E frameworks, indicators, and processes. Experts in the public sector are invited to adapt the proposed indicators to their specific needs. Alternatively, the methodology may be used to develop a national CRA M&E framework. Such a framework may act as a standard applied by all public sector organisations generating comparable data and indices. 

The methodology was developed in the framework of the project “South-Eastern Europe – Together Against Corruption” (SEE-TAC), implemented by the Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative (RAI) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and funded by the Austrian Development Agency (ADA)The SEE-TAC resumes the previous Programme phase, during which RAI experts developed national CRA methodologies for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and North Macedonia.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Author: Radu Nicolae
Year of Publishing: 2023

This methodology aims to provide the users with a better understanding of the monitoring and evaluation process of corruption proofing of legislation (CPL). The methodology is intended to be used by practitioners in the public sector as well as by CSOs dealing with anti-corruption towards a more transparent and qualitative legislative process in the targeted jurisdictions: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia.

The methodology focuses on the process of planning and implementing CPL M&E. It guides public sector institutions in developing bespoke CPL M&E frameworks, indicators, and internal processes. Public servants may modify the proposed indicators to meet their specific needs. CSOs from the region may use the methodology to independently monitor and evaluate the CPL process.

The methodology was developed in the framework of the project “South-Eastern Europe – Together Against Corruption” (SEE-TAC), implemented by the Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative (RAI) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and funded by the Austrian Development Agency (ADA)The SEE-TAC resumes the previous Programme phase, during which RAI experts developed national CPL methodologies for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Kosovo*.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Author: Radu Nicolae
Year of Publishing: 2023

Guidance with Checklists was produced as part of the project “Southeast Europe – Together Against Corruption”, funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation. This user-friendly document is produced for the Higher Education sector with the aim of outlining the sector-specific risks with selected examples of how the most prevalent risks can be successfully targeted and equipping beneficiaries with the right tools and building their capacities on using them.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Author: Prospector 
Year of Publishing: 2022
Additional Language Versions: Albanian/Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian

Guidance with Checklists was produced as part of the project “Southeast Europe – Together Against Corruption”, funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation. This user-friendly document is produced for the Public Enterprises sector with the aim of outlining the sector-specific risks with selected examples of how the most prevalent risks can be successfully targeted and equipping beneficiaries with the right tools and building their capacities on using them.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Author: Prospector 
Year of Publishing: 2022
Additional Language Versions: Albanian/Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian

Guidance with Checklists was produced as part of the project “Southeast Europe – Together Against Corruption”, funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation. This user-friendly document is produced for the Higher Education sector with the aim of outlining the sector-specific risks in the legislative process.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Author: Prospector 
Year of Publishing: 2022
Additional Language Versions: Albanian/Bosnian/Croatian/Montengrin/Serbian

Guidance with Checklists was produced as part of the project “Southeast Europe – Together Against Corruption”, funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation. This user-friendly document is produced for the Public Enterprises sector with the aim of outlining the sector-specific risks in the legislative process.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Author: Prospector 
Year of Publishing: 2022
Additional Language Versions: Albanian/Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian

Integrating the Treaty into National Laws

The paper Integrating the Treaty into National Laws was produced as part of the project “Southeast Europe – Together Against Corruption”, funded by the Austrian Development Cooperation. The paper aims to facilitate International Treaty ratification process through  assessment of the existing legal frameworks and  administrative practices of the beneficiaries’ jurisdictions.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Author: Dr. Tilman Hoppe 
Year of Publishing: 2021
Additional Language Versions: Montenegro/North Macedonia/Serbia

The Gap Analysis was produced as part of the project “Breaking the Silence: Enhancing Whistleblowing Policies and Culture in the Western Balkans and Moldova”, funded by the European Union. The project aims to help partners from the beneficiary jurisdictions to improve whistleblower reporting channels and protection mechanisms; strengthen the capacity of civil society to support whistleblowers; and raise public awareness of the importance of whistleblowing in the fight against corruption.

Publisher: Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative
Authors: Tom Devine and Mark Worth
Year of Publishing: 2021
Excerpts in local languages available: Albania/Bosnia and Herzegovina/Kosovo*/Moldova/Montenegro/North Macedonia/Serbia

After three years of work and improvements across South East Europe, asset recovery remains a complex and challenging aspect of criminal investigation and law enforcement. However, given the improvements sparked and catalysed by the last two years, regional participants can be proud of their good work and look with hope and expectation to a future where asset recovery and regional cooperation go hand in hand.

Publisher: AIRE Centre and RAI
Year of Publishing: 2021
Language Versions: English

This report concludes the two-year regional project “Strengthening the anticorruption in the South East Europe through improving asset seizure measures” which was implemented by the AIRE Centre (Advice on Individual Rights in Europe) and the Regional Anti-Corruption Initiative Secretariat (RAI), funded by the UK Government

Publisher: AIRE Centre and RAI
Author: Jill Thomas
Year of Publishing: 2021
Additional Language Versions: AlbanianBosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/SerbianMacedonian

 

The report “Effective Implementation of Asset Recovery Measures in the Western Balkans: an overview of a regional monitoring methodology, key benchmarks and case studies of good practice” includes an overview of the regional monitoring methodology, best practice, and steps forward, and it presents the most important standards derived from international sources, in particular from the European Union.

Publisher: AIRE Centre and RAI
Authors: E. Mujanovic, L. Mandia, G. Ismajli, A. Ivanovic, M. Lazarova-Trajkovska, R. Dragicevic-Dicic
Year of Publishing: 2020
Additional Language Versions: AlbanianBosnian/Croatian/Serbian/Montenegrin and Macedonian

This Handbook provides an overview of the international standards on the confiscation of the proceeds of crime and corruption. First, it addresses the questions of what confiscation is and why it is important. Second, it identifies the key international conventions and gives an indication of the scope of each one. Third, it explains the approach that those standards take on key aspects of confiscation.

Publisher: AIRE Centre and RAI
Authors: K. Kamber, W. Ferris, C. Harby E. Haxhia, A. Selmani, E. Mujanovic, D. Datzer, G. Ismajli, A. Ivanovic, M. L. Trajkovska, R. D Dicic
Year of Publishing: 2019
Additional Language Versions: AlbanianBosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/SerbianMacedonianRomanian and Bulgarian

This handbook aims to assists asset recovery practitioners to conduct effective international asset recovery by providing best practice guidance for international cooperation. It contains relevant international and European asset recovery legislation, standards and mechanisms for international cooperation, and will be a practical hands-on tool for investigators, prosecutors, judges and other institutions involved in asset tracing and identification, freezing and seizure, confiscation (including non-conviction based confiscation) and international asset disposal.

Publisher: RAI and AIRE Centre
Authors: 
AML Consulting (Global) Ltd: J. Thomas, L. Day, F. Jackson
Year of Publishing: 2019
Additional Language Versions:
Albanian, Bosnian/Croatian/Montenegrin/Serbian (available Cyrillic), Macedonian, Romanian & Bulgarian

The purpose of this study is to assess the current seizure and confiscation mechanisms available in Bulgaria, Croatia, Moldova and Romania, in order to establish their efficient and effective use in the context of the asset recovery process..

Publisher: RAI and OSCE
Author:
Pedro Gomes Pereira
Year of publishing:
2018
Language Versions:
English

The purpose of this study is to assess the current seizure and confiscation mechanisms available in the Western Balkans jurisdictions, in order to establish their efficient and effective use in the context of the asset recovery process.

Publisher: RAI and AIRE Centre
Author:
Pedro Gomes Pereira
Year of publishing:
2018
Language Versions:
English

The purpose of this paper is to provide different options, integrated framework and practical advice to conduct tailored corruption risk assessment(s) efficiently and comprehensively, and consequently to improve or upgrade governance / management of public sector institutions on integrity grounds in SEE.

Publisher: RCC and RAI for the SEE2020 Strategy
Author:
Liljana Selinsek
Year of publishing:
2015
Language Versions:
English

This Methodology seeks to enable policy makers to establish efficient monitoring and evaluaon mechanisms so as to get the best from an implementation process.

Publisher: RAI
Author: Tilman Hoppe
Year of Publishing:
2015
Language Versions:
English

An Overview of Laws, Practice, and Recent Initiatives

Publisher: RAI
Author:
Mark Worth, Blueprint for Free Speech
Year of Publishing: 2015

Language Versions:
English

The main goal of this project was to identify common challenges in fighting high level corruption using
criminal law proceeding in the view to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the investigations,
prosecution, and trials-

Publisher: TI Romania for RAI and RCC
Authors: 
V. Alistar, E. Calistru, I. Coşpănaru, M. Măroiu
Year of Publishing: 2011
Language Versions: English

Many corruption risks can appear along the legislative process. Citizens who
want to profit from specific legislation may attempt to bribe ministry experts
drafting legislation, bribe members of parliament, provide illicit financial
contributions to political parties or electoral candidates or exercise pressure
through questionable lobbying practices.

Author: Tilman Hoppe
Publisher:
RCC and RAI for the SEE2020 Strategy
Year of Publishing:
2014
Language Versions:
English

The main objective of this study is to provide the current status of rules,
experiences and practices related to assets declaration and conflict of interest
systems in countries represented by respective relevant institutions in the
Integrity Experts Network (IEN). T

Publisher: RAI Secretariat
Year of Publishing:
2012
Language Versions: English

* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and is in line with UNSCR 1244/1999 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.